The speech follows the Court’s decision to uphold radical preacher Abu Qatada’s appeal to not be deported from the UK last week, stating that sending him back to Jordan would breach his human rights.
The prime minister will say the court should not "undermine its own reputation by going over national decisions where it does not need to".
But the court's top judge, Sir Nicolas Bratza QC, said "the criticism relating to interference" in UK affairs was "simply not borne out by the facts".
The European court has a backlog of more than 150,000 cases.
The UK currently holds the rotating presidency of the Council of Europe. In his speech to its Parliamentary Assembly on Wednesday afternoon, Mr Cameron will promise to use the remaining three months of its term to press for change.
Westminster is also in conflict with the court over voting rights for prisoners. The UK's blanket ban on prisoners voting has been deemed incompatible with the European Convention on Human Rights.